1943

Charlie Parker Chronology

 

 

 

Created by Leif Bo Petersen

Last updated: November 7, 2017.

 

Date

Event

 

References/Further Details

 

January 15

Earl Hines and His Band

Probably:  Gail Brockman, Shorty McConnell, Little Benny Harris, Dizzy Gillespie (tp); Gus Chappell, Bennie Green, Howard Scott (tb); Scoops Carey, Goon Gardner (as); Thomas Crump, Charlie Parker (ts); John Williams (bar); Earl Hines (p); Connie Wainwright (g); Jesse Simpkins (b); Shadow Wilson (d); Julia Gardner (accordion, voc); Sarah Vaughan (voc, p); Madeline Green, Billy Eckstine (voc).

3 Businessmen of Rhythm

Long & Short

Patterson & Jackson.

Apollo Theater, New York, NY.

January 15–21, 1943.

 

Ad in New York Amsterdam News, January 16, 1943, 15.

“Earl Hines’ Famed Orchestra Is Booked,” New York Amsterdam News, January 16, 1943, 10.

“House Reviews, Apollo, N.Y.,” Variety, January 20, 1943, 32: 18 pieces: 4 trumpets, 3 trombones, 5 saxes, 2 pianos, g, b, and d.

Mentioned: Sarah Vaughan (voc, p); Julia Gardner (accordion); Madeline Green and Billy Eckstine (voc).

It has been suggested that Gillespie had not joined the band at this point of time, but the review’s mention of Salt Peanuts being played indicates that Gillespie was here.

January 22

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Three Varieties

Royal Theatre, Baltimore, MD.

January 22–28, 1943.

 

Ad in Baltimore Afro-American, January 23, 1943, 15.

“Earl Hines Opens Today at the Royal,” Baltimore Afro-American, January 23, 1943, 15.

February 2

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Robbins Theater, Warren, OH.

 

“Band Bookings,” Variety, January 27, 1943, 32.

February 5

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Pigmeat Markham

Three Business men of Rhythm

The Grantos

Paradise Theatre, Detroit, MI.

February 5–11, 1943.

 

Ad in Detroit Free Press, February 4, 1943, 22: opening tomorrow.

“Variety Marks Earl Hines Offering,” Detroit Free Press, February 8, 1943, 15:  including Billy Eckstine, Sarah Vaughan, Madeline Green, and Julia Gardner

Billy Eckstine in R. Reisner, Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker (1962), 85-86: Episodes with Parker sleeping under the stage and soloing in his socks.

“Teddy Edwards Interview” Cadence, April 1994, 10:  Edwards saw Parker and Sarah Vaughan in the Hines band here. Claims wrongly it was the week after Parker had been there with McShann.

 

February 12?

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

National Theatre, Louisville, KY.

“’Father’ Hines Puts U. of Louisville Kids Hep to Jive with Lecture,” Variety, February 14, 1943, 43: 16 pieces. Tells also of a Hines lecture at University of Louisville.

 

February 13

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Auditorium, Dayton, OH.

 

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, February 13, 1943, 26.

February 14

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Floyd Campbell and His Orchestra

Savoy Ballroom, Chicago, IL.

 

Ad in Chicago Defender, February 6, 1943, 14.

Father Hines and New Girl Chirper Here,” Chicago Defender (Nat. ed.), February 13, 1943, 19: Sarah Vaughan in the band in Chicago.

“4 Shot in Savoy by Wild Jitterbug,” Chicago Defender, February 20, 1943, 1; Shooting episode at Savoy Sunday February 14.

Down Beat, March 1, 1943: Review: Eckstine, Sarah Vaughan, Madeline Green, Goon Gardner, Jesse Simpkins, and Shorty McConnell are mentioned. No mention of Parker or Gillespie.

 

February 15?

Jam Session

Dizzy Gillespie, Billy Eckstine, Shorty McConnell, Little Benny Harris (tp); Charlie Parker, Goon Gardner (ts); Unidentified (g); Oscar Pettiford (b); Unidentified (d); Bob Redcross (brushes).

Probably Savoy Hotel, Chicago, IL.

Private acetate (lacquer) recordings by Bob Redcross exist.

 

O. Pettiford in R. Reisner, Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker (1962). 180: “I saw him again in Earl Hines’ band in 1943; they were in Chicago, and Diz was in the band, too. I got word that time that I could be in a jam session with Bird and Diz… Red Cross taped the session…”

http://www.plosin.com/milesahead/BirdSessions.aspx?s=430215a

http://www.plosin.com/milesahead/BirdSessions.aspx?s=430215b

 

February 16

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Dreamland, Omaha, NE.

9–1 a.m.

 

“Stage and Screen,” Omaha World Herald (Omaha, NE.). February 12 1943, 23.

Ad in Omaha World Herald (Omaha, NE.). February 12, 1943, 23.

February 21

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Exposition Hall. Municipal Auditorium, St. Louis, MO.

February 21, 1943.

Regal Sports Club (prod).

 

“Pistol Shot Starts Fights at Negro Ball,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 22, 1943, 3A.

February 23

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Tune Town, St. Louis, MO.

February 23–29, 1943.

 

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, February 27, 1943, 26.

February 24

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Armory, Jackson, TN.

Dance.

600 choice seats have been reserved for white spectators.

 

Ad in Jackson Sun, February 10, 1943, 6: 18 pieces

February 27

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Johnny Jones and His Orchestra

Ashland Avenue Auditorium, Chicago. IL

Madeline Green and Julie Gardner probably leaves the band here.

 

Ad in Chicago Defender, February 13, 1943, 9: Madeline Green, Billy Eckstine

“Madeleine Leaves Earl Hines’ Band,” Baltimore Afro-American, March 13, 1943, 17: From Chicago comes the news that Madeline Green has left Hines.

 

February late?

Charlie Parker

Probably Savoy Hotel, Chicago, IL.

Private acetate (lacquer) recordings by Bob Redcross exist:

Parker playing along with commercial recordings.

 

http://www.plosin.com/milesahead/BirdSessions.aspx?s=430600

 

March 4

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

16 pieces: Probably:  Gail Brockman, Shorty McConnell, Benny Harris, Dizzy Gillespie (tp); Gus Chappell, Bennie Green, Howard Scott (tb); Scoops Carey, Goon Gardner (as); Thomas Crump, Charlie Parker (ts); John Williams (bar); Earl Hines (p); Connie Wainwraight (g); Jesse Simpkins (b); Shadow Wilson (d); Sarah Vaughan (voc, p); Billy Eckstine (voc).

Ethel Waters

Patterson & Jackson

Adam’s Theater, New Ark, NJ.

March 4–10, 1943.

 

Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, March 6, 1943, 26.

“House Reviews: Adams, Newark,” Variety, March 10, 1943, 40: Review on opening day. 16 pieces. Music, stands, and instruments had been sidetracked in Chicago. They did not catch up until at midnight, so the band had to improvise the repertoire.

 

March 12

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Fay’s Theater, Philadelphia, PA.

March 12–18, 1943.

 

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, March 13 1942, 26.

March mid

Jam Sessions

Unidentified hotel, Philadelphia, PA.

Hines’ and some of Charlie Barnet’s musician’s are living at the same hotel in Philadelphia. Howard McGhee jams with Charlie Parker and Gillespie here.

 

“Barnet and New Orch Opening in Philly Metop…” Variety, March 3 1943, 33: Barnet at the Metropolitan Opera House, Philadelphia, March 11–31).

Howard McGhee in R. Reisner, Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker (1962), 143.

 

March 19

Earl Hines Orchestra

Symphony Hall, Boston, MA.

 

“Band Bookings”, Variety, March 3, 1943, 34.

March 20

Earl Hines Orchestra

South Gate Armory, Boston, MA.

Dance for Massachusetts State Guard.

 

“Earl Hines to Play Here March 20,” Boston Herald, March 10, 1943, 15.

Ad in Baltimore Afro-American, March 20, 1943 12: Billy Eckstein. Madeleine Green, Sarah Vaughan. Green’s name in the ad is probably a mistake.

 

March 21

Earl Hines and His Orchestra and His All Colored Revue

Three Varieties

Lyric Theatre, Fitchburg, MD.

Shows at 3:35, 6:10, and 8:40.

 

Ad in Fitchburg Sentinel March 20, 1943, 4: Sarah Vaughan, Billy Eckstine, Julia Gardner, Madeline Green, and Three Variettes. Green’s and Gardner’s names in the ad are probably a mistake.

 

 

March 23

Ethel Waters

Earl Hines and Orchestra

Three Varieties

Brookins and Van

Harold Cramer

Palace, Columbus, OH.

March 23–25.

 

Ad in Columbus Dispatch, April 24, 1943, 8-A.

“Top Entertainment Offered at Palace,” Columbus Dispatch, April 24, 1943, 8-A: Review.

March 30

Ethel Waters

Earl Hines and Orchestra

Maryland, Cumberland, MD.

March 31, 1943.

 

Ad in Cumberland Evening Times, March 29, 1943, 5: One day only.

March 31

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Maryland Theatre, Cumberland, MD.

Ad in Cumberland Evening Times, March 29, 1943, 5: Billy Eckstine, Sarah Vaughan.

“Earl Hines Tomorrow at Maryland Theatre,” Cumberland Evening Times, March 29, 1943, 5.

April 2

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Howard Theater, Washington, DC.

April 2–8, 1943.

 

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, April 3 1943, 24.

April 10

Charlie Parker

Washington, DC.

Charlie Parker marries dancer Geraldine Marguerite Scott.

 

Benny Harris in R. Reisner, Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker (1962), 108–109: Harris refers to her as “Jerry.”

K. Vail, Bird’s Diary (1996), 7.

 

April 11

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Casino Club, Plaquemine, LA.

Sunday Nite. Dance

 

Ad in State Times Advocate (Baton Rouge, LA.), April 9, 1943: 16.

April 16

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Oriental, Chicago, IL.

Planned, maybe not realized.

 

“Bookers Set Dates Year Ahead….” Billboard, January 16, 1943, 17.

April 18

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, NY.

 

“Band Bookings”, Variety, March 31, 1943, 35.

April mid

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

New York, NY.

Rehearsals for Blue Ribbon Salute tour starts.

 

“Jordan and Hines to Bask in “Salute Spotlight,” Baltimore Afro-American, April 20, 1942, 8: photos from rehearsals.

 

April 23

Earl Hines and His Band and Revue

17 pieces: Probably: Gail Brockman, Shorty McConnell, Benny Harris, Dizzy Gillespie (tp); Gus Chappell, unidentified, Bennie Green (tb); Scoops Carey, Goon Gardner (as); Thomas Crump, Charlie Parker (ts); John Williams (bar); Earl Hines (p); Connie Wainwright (g); Jesse Simpkins (b); Shadow Wilson (d); (Sarah Vaughan (voc, p); Julia Gardner (accordion); Billy Eckstine (voc).

Spick and Span (tap dance)

Bill Bailey (dance)

Tim Moore, Vivian Harris, George Wiltshire (comedy)

Apollo Theater, New York, NY.

April 23–29, 1943.

 

Ad in New York Amsterdam News, April 24, 1943, 15.

“House Reviews: Apollo, N.Y.,” Variety, April 28, 1943, 22: Reviewed on Friday, 23.

Metronome, June 1943, ?: Review of Apollo appearance (L. Feather scrapbooks).

L. Feather, Inside Jazz (1977), between pp. 74 and 75: photo dated to the opening at the Apollo April 23, 1943.

S. Dance, The World of Earl Hines (1977), 258–59: same photo as in Feather, Inside Jazz. Better person identification.

 

 

May 7

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Gail Brockman, Shorty McConnell, Jesse Miller, Dizzy Gillespie (tp), Gus Chappell, Benny Green, Howard Scott Cliff Smalls (tb), Scoops Carey, Andrew “Goon” Gardner (as), Thomas Crump, Charlie Parker (ts), John Williams (bar), Earl Hines (p), Connie Wainwright (g), Paul O. Simpson (b), Shadow Wilson (d), Sarah Vaughan (voc, p); Billy Eckstine (voc).

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

William Bell Graham (prod); Ralph Cooper (mc)

May 7–June 3.

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour sponsored by Pabst Beer.

Touring military camps in the South and the Midwest.

 

“Jordan and Hines to Bask in “Salute Spotlight,” Baltimore Afro-American, April 20, 1942, 8.

“Pabst Unit On Camp-Cash Dates,” Variety, April 28, 1943, 46: tour runs from May 7–June 3.

“Earl Hines Heads Cast for Pabst, Chicago Defender, May 8, 1943, 19.

S. Dance, The World of Earl Hines (1977), 267: photo from this period.

 

 

May 7

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

William Bell Graham (prod); Ralph Cooper (mc)

Fort Mead, MD.

May 7, 1943.

 

“Cooper, Bell Revue Catches Fancy of Soldiers in Camp, “ Pittsburgh Courier, May 15, 1943, 20: Review article dated May 13: referring to show “Friday Night”

May 8

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

William Bell Graham (prod); Ralph Cooper (mc)

Golden Gate Ball Room, New York, NY.

Presented by the Royal Sunset Auxiliary:

 

Ad in New York Amsterdam News, May 1, 1943, 15.

May 9

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

William Bell Graham (prod); Ralph Cooper (mc).

Fort Belvoir, VA.

March 9, 1943.

 

“Cooper, Bell Revue Cathes Fancy of Soldiers in Camp, “ Pittsburgh Courier, May 15, 1943, 20: Review article dated May 13: referring to show “Friday Night”

May 10

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

Fair Grounds, Petersburg, VA.

 

Ad in Richmond Times-Dispatch (Richmond (VA), May 9, 1943, 46.

 

 

May 17

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

Macon auditorium, Macon, GA.

8:30.

Ad in Macon Telegraph, May 12, 2.

May mid

Blue Ribbon Salute Tour

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Gail Brockman, Shorty McConnell, Jesse Miller, Dizzy Gillespie (tp); Gus Chappell, Bennie Green, Howard Scott (tb); Scoops Carey, Goon Gardner (as); Thomas Crump, Charlie Parker (ts); John Williams (bar); Earl Hines (p); Connie Wainwright (g); Jesse Simpkins (b); Shadow Wilson (d); (Sarah Vaughan (voc, p). Billy Eckstine (voc).

Louis Jordan Band

Lillian Fitzgerald

Bill Bailey

Patterson & Jackson

4 Blue Bonnets

San Antonio, TX.

 

International Musician, July 1943: givers personnel. Information provided by Howard Rye (UK).

June early

Jay McShann and His Orchestra

Release of Decca 4418 (recorded July 2, 1942):

Get Me on Your Mind

The Jumpin' Blues.

 

Decca ad in Billboard, June 12, 1943, 66: Just releasesd. Decca 4418. 

“The Week’s Best Releases,” Billboard, July 10, 1943, 66: release notice and review: favorable mention of the band and Walter Brown on Jumpin’ the Blues.

“On the Records,” Billboard, July 10, 1943, 25, 28: extensive review. Very favorable. Alto sax solo on Jumpin' the Blues is noticed.

“Dance Spot News,” Omaha World Herald, September 9, 1943, 4: Get Me on Your Mind is present juke box tune no. 1.

“Harlem Hit Parade,” Billboard, September 11, 1943, 14: the record is no. 9.

“Harlem Hit Parade,” Billboard, October 2, 1943, 12: the record is no. 9.

“Harlem Hit Parade,” Billboard, December 4, 1943, 12: the record is no. 10.

 

 

June 19

Earl Hines Orchestra

Municipal Auditorium, Kansas City, MO.

Dance. For whites.

 

“Tommy Dorsey Pulls…” Variety, June 23, 1943.

"Earl Hines This Week," Kansas City Star, June 13, 1943, 62.

Ad in Kansas City Star, June 18, 1943, 25.

June 21

Earl Hines Orchestra

Municipal Auditorium, Kansas City, MO.

For Negroes.

 

“Tommy Dorsey Pulls…” Variety, June 23, 1943.

“Covering Kansas City,” Pittsburgh Courier, July 3, 1943, 17.

 

June 24

Earl Hines Orchestra

Robinson Auditorium, Little Rock, AK.

Colored dance. Entire Mezzanine for white spectators.

 

Ad in Arkansas Gazette, June 24, 1943, 18.

June 27

Earl Hines Orchestra

Coliseum, Evansville, IN.

Stage show 7:30 p.m. Colored Dance 9:30 p.m.

 

Ad in Evansville Courier and Post, June 28, 1943, 9.

July 9

Earl Hines and His Band and Revue

Rhythm Brown

Kay & Kendall

Al Custer

Apollo Theater, NYC.

July 9-15.

 

Ad in New York Amsterdam News, July 10, 1943, 10.

House Reviews: Apollo, N. Y.,” Variety, July 14, 1943, 84:18 pieces including Billy Eckstine, and Sarah Vaughan.

 

July 16

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Town Hall, Philadelphia, PA.

 

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, July 17, 1943, 26.

July 18

Earl Hines & Comedy Orchestra

Tic Toc Club, Boston, MA.

July 18–24, 1943.

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, July 17, 1943, 26.

Ads in Boston Herald, July 20, 1943, 18, and

July 22, 1943, 13.

 

July 25

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Manhattan Center, NYC.

8:30 p.m.

 

Ad in New York Amsterdam News, July 17, 1943, 17.

July 30

Earl Hines and His Orchestra

Howard Theater, Washington, DC.

July 30–August 5.

Parker left here or in Baltimore.

 

“Orchestra Routes,” Billboard, July 31, 1943, 16.

M. Levin & J.S Wilson: “No Bop Roots in Jazz,” Down Beat, September 9, 1949.

 

August 6

Earl Hines Orchestra

Including Billy Eckstine and Sarah Vaughan.

Royal Theater, Baltimore, MD.

August 6–12, 1943

Billy Eckstine and others leaves Earl Hines,

 

Ad in Baltimore Afro-American, August 7, 1943, 14: Billy Eckstine and Sarah Vaughan.

"Earl Hines Band and Revue Now at Royal," Baltimore Afro-American, August 7, 1943, 14.

"'Father' Hines Loses Plenty of Children, Variety, August 18, 1943, 37: Tour South cancelled from Wednesday. August 18: Eckstine and 7 others got induction notes: Jesse Simpkins (b), Gail Brockman (tp), Jesse Miller (tp), Dizzy Gillespie (tp), Andrew Garber [sic], Thomas Cromp [sic] (saxes), Howard Scott (trombone).

"Lucky, Hines, Hawkins Hit By Draft Blues," Pittsburgh Courier, August 28, 1943, 21: Hines in danger of losing Gail Brockman, Jesse Miller, and John Gillespie (tp); Andrew Garber (sic!,] Thomas Crump (sax); Howard Scott (tb); Jesse Simpkins (b); Billy Eckstein (voc).

E. Southern, Conversation with William Clarence "Billy" Eckstine, The Black Perspective in Music, Fall 1970, 195: Eckstine: I left together with Gillespie and Parker and others because of my recent marriage.

 

August/September

Charlie Parker

Crystal Caverns, Washington, DC.

Charlie Parker joins Sir Charles Thompson in Washington.

 

M. Levin & J. S Wilson: “No Bop Roots in Jazz,” Down Beat, September 9, 1949.

 

October

Charlie Parker

Charlie Parker returns to Kansas City, but he can only be documented here until November late,

 

F. Driggs, ”The Story of Buddy Anderson.” Jazz Journal, February 1962, 12.

 

October

Lucky Enois Band

Including Bernhard Anderson (tp); Charlie Parker (as); Lucky Enois (g).

Kansas City, MO.

 

 

F. Driggs, ”The Story of Buddy Anderson.” Jazz Journal, February 1962, 12.

 

October late

Winston Williams and His Band

Charlie Johnson; Buddy Anderson (tp); Charlie Parker, unidentified (as); Sleepy Hickcox (p); Lucky (Enois (g); Winston Williams (b); Edward Philips (d); Debby Robinson (voc).

Tootie's Mayfair, Kansas City, MO.

October late–?

Buddy Anderson and Charlie Parker falls out, and Anderson leaves about Thanksgiving Day 1943.

 

Ad in Kansas City Star, October 23, 1943, 5

Ad in Kansas City Star, October 30, 1943, 5

Ad in Kansas City Star, November 13, 1943, 5

Ad in Kansas City Star, November 14, 1943, 63

Ad in Kansas City Star, November 20 1943, 5.

Frank Driggs, “The Story of Buddy Anderson,” Jazz Journal, February 1962, 12.

C. Haddix, Bird -The Life and Music of Charlie Parker (2013), 67, 171 note 18.

 

October/November?

 

Charlie Parker/Sonny Stitt

Sonny Stitt, touring with Tiny Bradshaw, meets Parker in Kansas City and jams with him.

Sonny Stitt in I. Gitler, Swing to Bop (1985) 61-6: Jamming at Gypsy Tea Room

Sonny Stitt in R. Reisner: Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker (1975), 216: jamming at Chancey Owenman's.

 

November?

Charlie Parker

Informal trio

Charlie Parker (as); possibly Lucky Enois (g); Little Phil Phillips (d).

Vic Damon Studios, Kansas City, KS.

Between November 43 and early 1944.

http://www.plosin.com/milesahead/BirdSessions.aspx?s=430900

C. Woideck: Charlie Parker - His Music and Life (1996), 86-88: Dates 1943 late or 1944 early on the basis of the release of the tune My Heart Tells Me. This tune was a hit song from the movie Sweet Rosy O’Grady, which was released in October 1943.

 

November 30

Dizzy Gillespie/Oscar Pettiford Band

Onyx Club, New York, NY.

Opening November 30, 1943.

Gillespie and Pettiford had tried to get Charlie Parker for the gig, but did not have success in contacting him. If he had joined, he would have had trouble with getting a transfer to Local 802, but because of the heavy drafting problems, it was not impossible to get a dispensation from the quarantine rules.

 

“Hotel Openings Dominate…” New York Evening Post, November 27, 1943, 15: Gives the whole bill opening Tuesday.

“Going out Tonight?” New York Evening Post, November 30, 1943, 35: gives the same show bill.

“52nd Street’s Newest Swing Sensation:” New York Amsterdam News, December 11, 1943, 7B: Photo of the Pettiford/Gillespie Group.

Dizzy Gillespie in D. Gillespie and A. Fraser, To Be or Not... to Bop (1979), 202: "Oscar and I decided to get Charlie Parker. We sent him a telegram in Kansas City, because he’d gone back home for a while.” Gillespie misdates to  1944.

Oscar Pettiford in R. Reisner, Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker (1962), 180-81: “We wanted Bird to come but he didn’t have a union card. He didn’t stay in town long enough.